Diet and activity for healthy individuals
Key facts: World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/healthy-diet)
- A healthy diet helps to protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancer.
- Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are leading global risks to health.
- Healthy dietary practices start early in life – breastfeeding fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development and may have longer term health benefits such as reducing the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.
- Energy intake (calories) should be in balance with energy expenditure. To avoid unhealthy weight gain, total fat should not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Intake of saturated fats should be less than 10% of total energy intake, and intake of trans-fats less than 1% of total energy intake, with a shift in fat consumption away from saturated fats and trans-fats to unsaturated fats (3), and towards the goal of eliminating industrially produced trans-fats.
- Limiting intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake is part of a healthy diet. A further reduction to less than 5% of total energy intake is suggested for additional health benefits.
- Keeping salt intake to less than 5 g per day (equivalent to sodium intake of less than 2 g per day) helps to prevent hypertension and reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke in the adult population.
- WHO Member States have agreed to reduce the global population’s intake of salt by 30% by 2025; they have also agreed to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity in adults and adolescents as well as in childhood overweight by 2025.
- In general, for an average adult, total calories needed in 24 hours ranges from 1200 to 2000 Kcal/day. Distribution of calories should be as follows in an adult requiring 1600 Kcal/day
- Carbohydrate: 50% of the calories, 200 grams (sugar less than 20 grams)
- Fats: 20 % of the calories, 35 grams (preferably vegetable fat. Saturated fat (animal fat) less than 10 grams)
- Proteins: 30% of the total calories, 100 grams per day
· Increase daily physical activity levels (aim for 10,000 steps/day if appropriate).
· Decrease total sedentary time and break up sedentary time
· Aerobic or resistance exercise (aiming for 150 min/week of moderate intensity exercise)